Effective methods for the treatment of varicose veins provide the elimination of clinical signs of varicose veins, prevent the occurrence of complications and relapse of the disease. An integrated approach to treatment, the use of minimally invasive methods that complement each other, drug therapy, compression stockings, healthy nutrition, gymnastic exercises are the key to the successful treatment of varicose veins.
Use of angioprotectors and venotonics
Unpleasant symptoms of the disease force you to act independently. As a rule, having felt the heaviness and heat in the legs, having noticed swelling in the ankles in the evening, the person does not go to the doctor, but goes to the pharmacy, where he receives an ointment or gel that removes the painful manifestations of varicose veins. At first, help will be felt immediately. The venotonics contained in ointments, which normalize the structure of the blood vessel wall, increase the tone and improve microcirculation, help in the beginning.
The disadvantages of treatment with ointments and gels include the fact that the effect of medicinal substances is limited to the superficial blood vessels; to treat internal veins, you need to take tablets. The appointment can only be made by a phlebologist. At this stage, the patient tries to get by with their own funds, and the next stage of treatment is the purchase of compression underwear.
Compression socks or boots
As ointments, compression stockings, over-the-knee boots or pantyhose they do not solve problems and do not cure varicose veins. It is very difficult to choose the right compression ratio yourself. Compression is prescribed by a doctor after treatment or in particularly difficult cases in the later stages of the disease. However, wearing compression underwear helps to suspend varicose veins, reduce painful manifestations, a feeling of fullness, heaviness in the legs by the end of the working day. Wearing underwear of this type is useful for sedentary work, with a prolonged standing position, for people engaged in heavy physical work.
There are restrictions on the use of socks - they cannot be worn all day, as the leg muscles have to work. The weakening of muscle tone leads to an increase in the manifestations of insufficiency of the venous valves, the treatment of varicose veins with the help of compression alone is impossible, and the disease continues to grow. The patient is faced with the need to resort to effective treatment, but since going to the doctor is still scary, the person resorts to traditional methods of treatment.
Due to the prevalence of the disease, there is an infinite variety of treatments for varicose veins. In terms of availability and efficiency, the following stand out:
- horse chestnut: fruits, bark, leaves, flowers are used. Wraps, tinctures, hot compresses are made from medicinal raw materials;
- apple cider vinegar - it is recommended to do it yourself, used for ingestion, rubbing, compresses on dilated veins;
- yogurt infused with wormwood - make lotions, compresses;
- blue clay - lotions, compresses, warm foot baths;
- Daily intake of grape juice or small amounts of natural grape red wine is recommended.
All the listed methods of traditional medicine help to reduce the manifestations of varicose veins, but are not able to cure it. In the arsenal of unconventional methods of treating varicose veins, there are many techniques, among which hirudotherapy should be emphasized.
The method is aimed at reducing the manifestation of varicose veins and cannot serve as a treatment. According to supporters of hirudotherapy, the hirudin contained in the saliva of leeches with a bite enters the patient's blood, reduces its viscosity, which reduces the risk of thrombus formation in dilated deformed varicose vessels.
The decision on the adequacy of the procedure is made by the attending physician, since there are contraindications:
- blood diseases - anemia, hemophilia;
- leech allergy;
- exhaustion of the body;
- low blood pressure;
- inflammatory skin diseases;
- old age of the patient.
Minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of varicose veins
The treatment of varicose veins is obtained using minimally invasive techniques, low traumatic procedures that do not require hospitalization, anesthesia, long-term rehabilitation after surgery. Non-surgical intervention can be performed in the treatment room, while it is not necessary to follow a special regimen and prepare the operating room. Minimally invasive procedures have a less traumatic effect than varicose vein surgery.
In all non-surgical techniques, the impact on the patient's body is limited to a needle pin or small incision. In 95% of all cases of varicose veins, non-surgical interventions are used, and only 5% of patients are offered phlebectomy.
Minimally invasive procedures include:
- laser ablation;
- radiofrequency ablation;
The essence of this minimally invasive method of treating varicose veins is to transform a deformed vein into a fibrous cord. The method has been known since the 17th century; acid, iodine, perchlorine, tannin were used as sclerosing agents injected into a vein. The reagents produced many side effects. With the advent of sclerosing fibrowein in the 20th century, this method of treatment became widespread. The doctor decides to use sclerotherapy based on the results of an ultrasound examination.
Sclerotherapy is used as the main treatment for varicose veins of the saphenous veins, performed under constant ultrasound control. The recently introduced "foam sclerotherapy" method further increases the effectiveness of the procedure. This method is used when the veins are no more than 10 mm in diameter. In these cases, the surgery has practically no complications. To consolidate the success of the procedure, the patient is advised to walk for 30-40 minutes immediately after surgery and to wear graduated compression stockings for one month.
The procedure is carried out on an outpatient basis, takes from 30 minutes to 2 hours, the patient after the manipulations is able to go home alone. The surgery is performed under local anesthesia. A light guide is inserted into the affected vein and pushed along the vein. Then turn on the laser and turn the light guide back. Under the influence of radiation, blood coagulates, the walls of the vessels are burned and come together, forming a cord, which eventually dissolves.
Light guides are allowed:
- end- used to treat veins no larger than 1 cm in diameter;
- radial- spreads radiation evenly with 360 degree coverage, injected into veins of any thickness.
After the procedure, the patient should wear compression stockings as prescribed by the doctor and be examined by a phlebologist.
Radio frequency ablation (RFA)
The radiofrequency ablation procedure is considered one of the least traumatic, it is an effective way to treat varicose veins. The method is used on veins of any diameter; thrombophlebitis and trophic changes in the skin are contraindications. The surgery is performed under local anesthesia, under ultrasound guidance.
A radiofrequency catheter is inserted into a vein through a puncture. After the catheter is inserted at the desired length, an anesthetic is injected into the tissues around the vessel. It creates a "water bed" around the affected vessel, which protects surrounding tissues from radio waves. The method allows you to play sports after 15 days, this method is preferred by most specialists.
During the procedure, the diseased vein is removed using special hooks, which are inserted into the vein under local anesthesia through an incision in the skin (up to 1 mm). The patient can start working in 3-5 days after the procedure, small bruises formed during non-surgical intervention dissolve in 3-4 weeks. For 1-2 weeks after the procedure, the patient should wear compression stockings. Advantages of the technique include the removal of a deformed vein and the applicability of this method to veins of any diameter.
In some cases, the only way to treat varicose veins of the lower extremities is a classic operation to remove the affected veins - phlebectomy. Pain relief: spinal anesthesia or endotracheal anesthesia. The patient should be in the hospital for 1-2 days after the operation.
The indications for surgery are:
- extensive varicose lesions of the saphenous veins;
- severe impairment of blood flow;
- acute complications of varicose veins - thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers.
Phlebectomy is used when all other methods are ineffective. The risk of surgery is now minimized.
There are a limited number of contraindications:
- internal deep vein thrombosis;
- hypertension, heart disease;
- inflammatory skin diseases;
- infectious diseases.
An operation is performed using a special probe, which is inserted into the lumen of the vein through a skin incision. The extended area is removed by mechanical traction. After removing the vein, the incisions are sutured. The operation usually lasts no more than two hours.
The first day after the operation bed rest is recommended, with the permission of the doctor, it is allowed to walk a little in the hospital ward. After 2-3 days, the patient is discharged home. In the postoperative period, the patient must take venotonics and drugs to reduce blood viscosity, wear compressive underwear for 1. 5 months, perform gymnastics and walk.
The choice of a treatment method depends on the results of a comprehensive examination of the patient; often a phlebologist turns to combined methods of treatment of a patient. Modern and sparing methods of non-surgical procedures for treatment in the early stages of the disease give excellent results. It is important not to self-medicate, so as not to allow varicose veins to interfere in your life.