Modern methods allow you to treat varicose veins without surgery. Conservative therapy increases the elasticity of blood vessels, thins the blood and eliminates blood clots, while minimally invasive methods clog and divide the damaged areas of the veins, thus eliminating the problem as much as possible. These varicose vein treatment methods are not only effective but also safe.
In the early stages of the disease, it is not always advisable to resort to minimally invasive methods of treatment, therefore drugs are the basis of maintenance therapy. To normalize the condition of the veins with varicose veins, drugs from the group of angioprotectors and venotonics are used.
Medicines relieve the unpleasant symptoms of varicose veins: swelling, pain, inflammation, fatigue in the legs. They also increase the elasticity of blood vessels, thin the blood and prevent the formation of blood clots, so their use is also relevant in the treatment of a disease adjacent to varicose veins - thrombophlebitis.
The use of gels and ointments helps to effectively eliminate the symptoms of the disease, affecting the superficial blood vessels. In order for the action to reach the internal veins, it is necessary to take pills.
At the initial stage of varicose veins, the method of conservative therapy can be supplemented with the use of compression garments.
Note! Drugs can only be prescribed by a phlebologist, as can compression underwear. Self-treatment and the choice of drugs can not only improve the condition of the veins, but also worsen the state of health. The doctor selects medications and compression stockings individually for each patient.
Hirudotherapy or leech therapy helps to eliminate the disease without surgery. The saliva of leeches contains hirudin, after a bite it enters the patient's bloodstream, reduces its viscosity and prevents the development of thrombosis in dilated veins.
Hirudotherapy can only be prescribed by a doctor, the procedure has contraindications:
- period of pregnancy of the child;
- allergy to leeches;
- blood diseases - anemia, hemophilia;
- exhaustion of the body;
- low blood pressure;
- inflammatory skin diseases;
- old age of the patient.
Minimally invasive procedures
Minimally invasive methods for treating varicose veins are effective procedures that do not require surgery, hospital stay and long-term rehabilitation. These methods of treating varicose veins of the lower limbs are not very traumatic and absolutely painless, they are performed under local anesthesia. Non-surgical intervention is performed in the treatment room, the same day the patient can go home.
All non-surgical methods of treating varicose veins involve the effect on the patient's body through an injection with a fine needle or a small incision. In 95% of all cases of varicose vein treatment, doctors use absolute non-surgical intervention, only 5% of patients are prescribed phlebectomy.
Minimally invasive procedures:
- laser ablation;
- radiofrequency ablation;
The method of sclerotherapy consists of injecting a sclerosing agent into a vein, where the active ingredient begins to block the damaged area and the blood moves through the circulatory system without penetrating the blocked place. Over time, the damaged vein dissolves on its own.
Sclerotherapy is used as the main method for the treatment of varicose veins, the method is carried out under constant control of ultrasound. Modern technologies have improved the sclerotherapy method, turning it into foam sclerotherapy, an even more effective way to treat varicose veins. Foam sclerotherapy is performed with a vein diameter of no more than 10 mm, the intervention has practically no complications.
After sclerotherapy, the patient is advised to walk for 30-40 minutes in compression underwear. To consolidate the positive effect, compression garments must be worn for a month.
Laser ablation is done on an outpatient basis, the procedure lasts from 30 minutes to 2 hours. After laser therapy, the patient can go home alone. Laser therapy is performed under local anesthesia.
The method consists of introducing a light guide into the affected vein, where it is located along it. In addition, the laser beam is turned on and brought back, under the influence of radiation, the blood coagulates, the laser cauterizes the walls of the vessels and they come together, this is how the affected area of the vein is blocked. Over time, the vein treated with the laser dissolves.
Light guides used for laser ablation:
- fine - in the treatment of veins reaching a diameter of not more than 1 centimeter;
- radial: injected into veins of any diameter, these fibers spread radiation evenly (360 degree coverage).
Note! After the laser therapy procedure, the patient should wear a compression garment for prophylactic purposes. The type of linen and the duration of its use will be prescribed by a phlebologist.
The radiofrequency ablation procedure is one of the least traumatic techniques capable of effectively eliminating varicose veins. Radiofrequency ablation can be performed on veins of any diameter. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, under constant ultrasound control.
A puncture is made in the vein through which a radiofrequency catheter is inserted. The catheter is inserted at the desired length into the tissues located around the vein, then the anesthetic is injected. The anesthetic creates a "water bed" around the damaged vein, which protects surrounding tissues from radio waves. Radiofrequency therapy does not require long-term rehabilitation, as early as 15 days after the procedure, the patient can indulge in sports.
Contraindications to radiofrequency ablation:
- trophic changes in the skin.
During the microflebectomy procedure, the doctor removes the affected vein using special hooks. These hooks are inserted into a vein under local anesthesia through a small incision up to 1 millimeter.
Rehabilitation after treatment takes 3-5 days, after which the patient can begin work. The bruises that form during the procedure dissolve on their own after 3-4 weeks. For the first two weeks after the microflebectomy, the patient should wear compression stockings.
The advantages of the microflebectomy procedure are the complete removal of the affected vein and the possibility of using the technique for veins of any diameter.
When non-surgical treatment regimens for varicose veins do not give a positive effect, the doctor prescribes an operation to the patient to remove the damaged veins - phlebectomy. Only surgery can eliminate varicose veins in advanced cases.
Phlebectomy is performed under spinal or endotracheal anesthesia. After the operation, the patient is in the hospital for 1-2 days.
Indications for surgery:
- extensive varicose veins;
- severe violation of the outflow of blood;
- acute complications of varicose veins - trophic ulcers, thrombophlebitis.
Phlebectomy is performed in patients when other methods are ineffective. The danger of surgery is minimal, but there are contraindications for phlebectomy:
- internal deep vein thrombosis;
- inflammatory skin diseases;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- infectious diseases.
Phlebectomy is performed with a probe inserted into a vein through a small skin incision. The enlarged section of the vein is removed by mechanical traction. Then, after removing the vein, the incision is sutured. The operation takes no more than 2 hours.
In the first 24 hours after surgery, the patient needs bed rest, with the permission of the doctor, you can walk in the hospital ward. After two or three days, the patient is discharged. In the postoperative period, the patient is prescribed venotonics and drugs to reduce blood viscosity, wear compression underwear for two months, special gymnastics and walking in the fresh air, swimming and cycling.