Varicose veins of the small pelvis: causes, symptoms, treatment

Varicose veins can be located in different places and one of them is the pelvic area. Usually, the pathology develops in women and is characterized by frequent aching pains in the lower abdomen. Vein problems are also possible in men, but the disease affects the testicles, causing heaviness in the scrotum, pain and discomfort during intercourse. Since the structure of the pelvic organs in women and men is different, we will consider separately the features of the course of varicose veins in representatives of different sexes.

varicose veins of the small pelvis

Varicose veins in women

According to statistics, young women between the ages of 20 and 45 are even prone to pelvic varicose veins or chronic pelvic pain syndrome. However, with age, the number of women suffering from this disease increases many times. And if at the age of 17 the pathology is diagnosed in 19% of women, then at the age of 45 their number increases to 80%.

What leads to an increase in the number of patients with age? Without taking into consideration the cases in which the cause of varicose veins is a hereditary predisposition (genetically intrinsic characteristics of the structure of the valves and blood vessels, which determines their tendency to stretch excessively), we will consider only those we are dealing with for lifetime .

First, it is a sedentary lifestyle. Prolonged static stay in the same position, when standing or sitting for a long time, causes disturbances in the venous outflow and leads to chronic venous insufficiency and stagnation of blood in the vessels of the lower part of the body. The valves in the dilated veins of the small pelvis cease to close tightly, and a space remains between them. A clot begins to form in this vessel, which can later turn into a blood clot.

The second factor that causes the risk of developing varicose veins of the small pelvis is pregnancy. During it, the amount of blood in the circulatory bed increases significantly, the uterus begins to squeeze the retroperitoneal vessels, and the hormonal background changes. This leads to persistent varicose veins and the further development of the pathology.

Varicose veins of the small pelvis during pregnancy do not pose a direct danger, and childbirth with it passes without complications, so the disease is not treated. This expansion of the veins of the vulva and perineum is observed in 30% of women. Immediately after childbirth, the vessels often quickly return to normal without any intervention, and as a result, after the birth of a child, the disease persists only in 2-8% of women.

maternity bandage for small pelvic varicose veins

The third reason for the development of varicose veins of the small pelvis is the presence of gynecological diseases, the use of contraceptive drugs and hormone replacement therapy.

The fourth, no less important factor is smoking. It is especially worth noting that smoking and the simultaneous use of hormonal contraceptives are unacceptable. They are mutually reinforcing and there are many tragic cases in which young women smokers taking hormonal contraceptive pills have died from vascular thrombosis.

The fifth risk factor is overweight, as obesity significantly increases the load on the vessels.

In addition, the cause of the disease is considered to be the deterioration of the environment, since gas pollution in the air in large cities increases the likelihood of developing vascular pathologies.

But how to recognize the presence of varicose veins in the small pelvis? The main symptoms of the disease are:

  • aching pains in the lower abdomen, which are aggravated by lifting weights, general fatigue, hypothermia, and even after a long stay in one position;
  • painful sensations in the perineum during or after intercourse;
  • violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • an increase in the amount of vaginal discharge;
  • pronounced venous pattern on the back of the thighs and buttocks.

In addition, the external genital organs can also be affected: pain, itching, thickening, knots appear.

What to do if symptoms are found?

To avoid the development of complications in the presence of such symptoms, it is necessary to consult a doctor. The first specialist a woman should visit is a gynecologist. After the examination, she will prescribe tests and studies to exclude gynecological diseases. As a rule, this is an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs (also on ultrasound it is possible to see the presence of pathological, tortuous and dilated vessels).

phlebologist who treats pelvic varicose veins

The patient is then referred to a phlebologist. To clarify the diagnosis, she can prescribe a duplex ultrasound of the vessels, which allows you to get detailed information about the blood flow. In some cases, MRI, computed tomography and laparoscopy are prescribed. Usually, these studies are sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis and determine the stage of the disease.

There are three degrees of varicose veins in the small pelvis:

  • the diameter of the veins is not more than 5 mm, and the affected vessels are located in the upper edge of the left ovary;
  • the diameter of the veins is from 5 to 10 mm, the vessels of the uterus and right ovary are affected;
  • the diameter of the veins is more than 10 mm, pronounced pathology in both ovaries (the vessels are equally dilated on the left and right), in the uterus. In the area of the buttocks, thighs and groin, there are enlarged veins and nodules.

Treatment

After completing the necessary diagnostics and based on the general condition of the patient and the severity of the disease, the doctor prescribes treatment. It involves several methods. First of all, you need:

  • rejection of bad habits;
  • normalization of working and resting conditions, including the fight against hypodynamia (try to avoid prolonged static holding of the body in one position, as well as excessive physical exertion, weight lifting);
  • refusal of high heels, wearing comfortable shoes;
  • wear compression stockings and underwear to improve venous outflow.

True therapy for varicose veins of the small pelvis is usually complex. It includes remedial gymnastics, massage, diets, pharmacotherapy, folk methods, etc. So pharmacotherapy means taking:

  • phlebotropic drugs that improve blood circulation, eliminate congestion and increase vascular tone, preventing the formation of blood clots;
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - for severe pain;
  • vitamins and antioxidants.

Normalization of the diet, in particular, means the exclusion of salty, spicy and fried foods, canned food and seasonings from it. This must be done because salty food contributes to fluid retention in the body and the formation of edema, which leads to hypertension. Fried and fatty foods are known to cause plaque and accumulate excess body weight, which adversely affects vascular health. A weight loss of just 5kg has been shown to help lower blood pressure by 5mm Hg. Art.

Also, with varicose veins, you should include as many vegetables, vegetables and fruits in your diet as possible. They contain a large amount of fiber, which prevents the formation of congestion in the intestine. In moderation, it is recommended to eat vegetable oil, for example as a salad dressing.

Gymnastics for the disease

In the absence of contraindications (vascular thrombosis, acute diseases, involvement of deep veins in the process) and complications, the patient is prescribed special therapeutic exercises. The exercises are very simple.

  • "Bicycle". In the supine position, the legs rise and begin to perform alternating thrusting movements in the air.
  • "Birch". Further, lying on your back, your legs are raised vertically upwards and try to maintain this position.
  • "Scissors". Lying on your back, the raised legs are alternately crossed.
  • Raise your feet. The feet are alternately raised first on the toes and then on the heels. It can be performed in a sitting or standing position.
gymnastics with varicose veins of the small pelvis

If a patient has a third degree of varicose veins of the small pelvis and chronic venous insufficiency, the doctor may suggest surgery. The operation is performed using modern surgical methods, is characterized by low trauma, almost painless and does not require a long recovery.

Varicose veins of the small pelvis in men

In the representatives of the stronger sex, the pathology most often occurs in the form of varicocele disease, which is characterized by the expansion of the veins of the testicles. Also, in the vast majority of cases, the left testicle is affected. In this case, the scrotum increases in size and the patient suffers from pulling pains. This disease is easy to suspect on your own, since when probing the testicles, characteristic small nodules ("milk fungus") are felt. Varicocele causes pain during erection and sexual intercourse, thus causing physical and psychological discomfort.

Furthermore, the disease can be a factor that causes infertility in men. However, recent scientific studies disprove the relationship of varicocele with male infertility and only the most advanced cases are dangerous. Varicocele surgery is rarely used. As with varicose veins of the small pelvis in women, its therapy consists in performing therapeutic exercises and taking special medications.